The four famous embroideries in our country always make […]
The four famous embroideries in our country always make people unable to help themselves. Today I can’t help but want to talk to you a few words about our four famous embroideries in China.
Among the traditional embroidery crafts in China, "Xianxiu" produced in Hunan Province in central China, "Shu embroidery" in Sichuan Province in western China, "Guangdong Embroidery" produced in Guangdong Province in southern China, and "Su embroidery" produced in Jiangsu Province in eastern China "Together referred to as China's four famous embroidery".
Xiang embroidery, one of the four famous embroidery in China, has always been famous at home and abroad for its long history, exquisite craftsmanship, unique style and wide variety of categories. The earliest Hunan embroidery product discovered so far is a silk fabric unearthed from the Han Dynasty tomb of Mawangdui No. 1 (206 BC to 220 AD) in Changsha. The stitching method used is almost the same as that of modern Xiang embroidery. In the Han dynasty more than two thousand years ago, the Hunan embroidery process had already been produced. After a long period of development, Xiangxiu gradually introduced the traditional characteristics of traditional Chinese painting into it, thus forming its own unique style. By the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China (early 20th century), the development of Xiang embroidery reached its heyday, even surpassing Su embroidery and occupying the leading position in the Chinese embroidery industry. After the founding of New China, Hunan embroidery workers are committed to innovation on the basis of inheriting traditions, so that Hunan embroidery technology has been raised to a new level.
Xiang embroidery is mainly made of pure silk, hard satin, soft satin, transparent yarn, nylon, etc., and is embroidered with various colors of silk and cashmere. It takes Chinese painting as the god and fully exerts the expressive power of acupuncture to achieve the artistic realm of rigorous composition, vivid image, bright colors, strong texture, and both form and spirit. In embroidery, there are both precious art appreciation and beautiful and suitable daily necessities.
Shu embroidery is also called "Sichuan embroidery". It is a general term for embroidery products centered on Chengdu, Sichuan. The production of Shu embroidery has a long history. As early as the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD), the name of Shu embroidery was already well-known in the world. The Han government also set up a "Jin Guan" in Chengdu for management. From the Han Dynasty to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-960 AD), the relatively stable situation in Sichuan created favorable conditions for the development of Shu embroidery. The increasing social demand has stimulated the rapid development of the Shu embroidery industry. In the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD), the development of Shu embroidery reached its peak, and embroidery products were unique in terms of craftsmanship, production, sales and exquisiteness. After the middle of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1644-1911), Shu embroidery gradually formed an industry. At that time, the county governments set up "Persuasion Bureau" to encourage the production of Shu embroidery. After the founding of New China, Chengdu Shuxiu Factory was established in Sichuan, which brought the development of Shuxiu craftsmanship into a new stage, with continuous technological innovation and increasing variety.
Shu embroidery originated from the folk in western Sichuan. In the long-term development process, due to the influence of geographical environment, customs, culture and art, it has gradually formed a unique style of rigorous and delicate, bright and smooth, sparse composition, thick and round, bright colors. The materials of Shu embroidery works are abundant, including flowers and trees, birds and animals, landscape fish and insects, and portraits of people. There are 122 types of stitches in 12 categories. Commonly used stitches are halo needles, paving needles, rolling needles, cutting needles, mixed needles, sand needles, cover needles, etc. Pay attention to "neat stitches, bright thread, tight and soft, car Screw home". There are many types of embroidery, including quilt cover, pillowcases, clothes, shoes and painting screens. It has both a large-format screen and small pockets. It is an exquisite artwork with both ornamental and practicality.
Yue embroidery is also called "Guangxiu". It is a general term for embroidery products produced in Guangzhou, Chaozhou, Shantou, Zhongshan, Panyu and Shunde in Guangdong Province. According to historical records, in the first year of Yongzheng in the Tang Dynasty (AD 805), a young girl named Lu Meiniang in Nanhai County of Guangdong had embroidered seven volumes of "Fahua Jing" on a piece of silk surface. Famous in the world. During the Song and Yuan Dynasties (10th to 14th century AD), the prosperity of Guangzhou Port promoted the rapid development of Cantonese embroidery crafts, and Cantonese embroidery products began to be exported abroad. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD), Guangzhou's embroidery artists were already able to skillfully use various colors of velvet embroidery, and creatively use the tail feathers of animals to make threads to make embroidery more natural and vivid. During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1736-1796), the first Cantonese embroidery organization "Guangdong Embroidery Line" was established in Guangzhou. At that time, there were many artists engaged in embroidery, and Guangdong embroidery continued to develop and improve its craftsmanship and needlework . After 1915, Yue embroidery won many awards at the Panama International Fair and other international competitions.
In the long-term development of Cantonese embroidery, influenced by folk arts of various nationalities, it gradually formed its own unique artistic style on the basis of all-embracing and integration. Embroidery is mainly made of dragons, phoenixes, flowers and birds, etc. The patterns are full and symmetrical, with strong color contrast and magnificence. In the stitching method, it has the characteristics of "even stitch step, clear texture, seeing stitches everywhere, and neat stitches". In terms of types, Cantonese embroidery can be divided into three categories: velvet embroidery, thread embroidery, and gold and silver thread embroidery. Varieties include costumes, hall decorations, joint accounts, eyebrow picking, screen hanging, and various daily embroidery products.
Suxiu is a general term for embroidery products centered on Suzhou, Jiangsu. Embroidery in Suzhou has a history of more than 2000 years. As early as the period of the Three Kingdoms (220-280 AD), there are records of embroidery production in Suzhou. After the continuous development and improvement of successive dynasties, by the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Su embroidery had become a popular mass sideline product in Suzhou area, forming a situation of "family raising silkworms and household embroidery". In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 AD), Su embroidery was famous for its "fine elegance", and Suzhou at that time was also known as "embroidered city". In the middle and late Qing dynasties, Su embroidery has further developed its embroidering technology, and new "double-sided embroidery" has emerged. There are more than 65 merchants specializing in embroidery in Suzhou alone. During the period of the Republic of China (1912 ~ 1949 AD), due to the perennial wars, Su Xiuye once declined. After the founding of New China, Su Xiu was further restored and developed. After 1950, the State specially established the Su Embroidery Research Institute and started embroidery training courses. The stitch method of Su embroidery has developed from the original 18 kinds to more than 40 kinds today.
Su embroidery has a unique style with beautiful patterns, ingenious ideas, meticulous workmanship, lively needlework and elegant colors, with strong local characteristics. The embroidery technique has the characteristics of "flat, uniform, thin, dense, harmonious, smooth, smooth and uniform". "Flat" means that the embroidered surface is flat; "Qi" means that the edges of the pattern are neat; "Fine" means that the needle is delicate and the embroidery thread is fine; "Dense" means that the lines are arranged compactly without revealing stitches; "and" means that the color is suitable; "Light" refers to dazzling and bright colors; "shun" refers to the smoothness of the silk; "even" refers to the fine and uniform lines, uniformity and density. In terms of types, Su Xiu's works can be divided into three categories: zero-cut, costumes, and hanging screens, both decorative and practical. Among them, "double-sided embroidery" works are the most exquisite.